Divine Illumination and Revelation 


Section Two

THE CREATION OF KNOWLEDGE 


                                                                                                    

 

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Chapter One 

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Chapter Three

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Part Two

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES


Two distinct sub-problems emerge from the analysis of the problem of idea innovation. The first, which concerns the definition of the psychological processes through which the solution is achieved, is discussed in this part. The second, which concerns the explanation of how new ideas are created, is the subject of Part Three.

The problem solving path is described by which the problem to be solved is submitted to the psychological processes in which the solution is created. The psychological processes are defined and from this analysis the rules for creating knowledge are derived. Failures to achieve knowledge are shown to be the results of contraventions of these rules. The problem solving process is uniform for all problems, both simple and complex. Simple problems pass through the process very quickly and are therefore difficult to observe. Complex scientific or theological problems are much slower in their passage through the psychological processes and some observation is possible. More generally, the existence and functions of the processes come to light when problems such as failures to arrive at solutions or arriving at false solutions are subjected to the problem solving procedure.

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The Creation of Knowledge

The psychological Processes


Chapter One

THE PROBLEM SOLVING PROCEDURE


In the problem solving procedure the individual is conscious of a problem and has formed the aim to solve it. The problem solving method has been operated and the problem understanding and the solution specification lie in the intellect. They are not in the conscious part of the intellect since the individual is not consciously aware of them in their entirety, and they are therefore taken to be in some subconscious area. The solution is formed outside the intellect and, when available, appears in the subconscious instantaneously as a completed logical construction called insight. Descriptions of the working of the process generally show that the individual becomes aware that now he knows, without at that moment knowing precisely what it is that he knows. He can, however, begin to express the insight and become consciously aware of the full character of the solution.

The path of the problem through the intellect may be traced from the first consideration of its presence to the final achievement of the solution.

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Departments of the Intellect

In previous discussion the intellect has been defined as the compendium of understandings under the direction of an intelligence. In normal working the bulk of the understandings which are known to exist within an intellect, are not present to the current problem under solution. In general, understandings may be divided into those present to the conscious at any given time and those not present. Understandings as logical sets or programs must be stored within the intellect. The intellect must then be divided into two areas which are labelled the conscious and the subconscious. The conscious represents a temporary working area, and the subconscious the permanent area of storage of understandings.

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The Functions of the Conscious and Infraconscious.

The conscious functions while the individual is awake. What is perceived while dreaming occurs in the infraconscious. The term "infraconscious" refers to levels below the conscious without being specific. In general, the conscious has an intermittent existence, and when it functions the individual is aware of external reality. In the process of problem solving the conscious functions as a control or management area in which understandings are brought together and decisions are made. Typically, an event of experience in the form of an understanding is considered in the light of a reality defined by a model.

The tasks of deciding what reality construction should be invoked, and what understanding or meaning should be assigned to the event of experience, belongs to the infraconscious. The infraconscious remembers all decisions and judgments, and orders the results of conscious deliberations in such a way that they can be retrieved into the conscious when required.

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The Conscious

The intelligence, as the core of the intellect, is fundamentally a multiprocessor and, having no control program in its immature state, it thrashes about to no useful result. The dreaming state represents this condition. The effect of the conscious state is to force the intelligence to focus on problems in a serial fashion. This is achieved by creating the intellectual equivalent of a brightly illuminated screen or monitor, on which the most prominent of current meanings in the intelligence is displayed. In the reflection on the screen the intelligence focuses on its own most prominent meaning and disregards all others as no more than a background of concerns. The conscious state therefore gives the intelligence intermittent control over the thinking or problem solving process.

All significant thought in the intelligence is reflected back from the conscious to the intelligence. Thought originates as meaning expressed by the intelligent nucleus of the intellect and appears in the conscious to be evaluated. In transmission it may or may not be verbalised. For example, non-verbal reflection includes feelings of doubt or distrust which are consciously recognised as such without immediate access to the logical grounds for these feelings. In intuitive intellects a significant part of the reflective process is non-verbal. In animals it is, of course, wholly non-verbal.

This reflective system may be compared to a computer system which reflects or echoes all keyboard input on the monitor screen. At a more complex level the system may be compared to a Windows based data processing system in which there are many windows each containing the latest state of one of the individual's projects or models. The process of attending to these projects in this reflective manner may be called thinking. Thinking is the process of bringing meanings into the conscious mind and examining the relationship or logical structure of those meanings. This is usually motivated by a purpose, and from that purpose by an objective which is usually to solve a problem.

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The Subconscious

The limitations of that part of the intellect called the conscious are very clear when the problem solving process is examined. While all decisions and other judgments are made in the conscious component, (one is conscious of making them), the full record of the problem investigation, analysis, and definition is not held within the conscious at any time. The solution specification is passed through the conscious but is retained elsewhere and the solution exists outside the conscious although the individual is conscious of its existence and can draw upon it by bringing it into his conscious in a serial and verbal fashion. Furthermore, the stock of understandings, both experiential and theoretical is all likewise resident outside the conscious state. Nevertheless all intellectual property is logically adjacent to the conscious such that it may be accessed easily and quickly. The area of storage that is the subconscious may be visualised as highly organised in the manner of a large and complex database.

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Habitual thinking

The subconscious cannot be examined directly by the conscious and there is, therefore, no means of investigating the contents of the intellect, except through analysis of one's own behaviour. Since the subconscious is out of reach, it cannot be directly modified. It constitutes an operating system which dictates the individual's behaviour. Habitual thinking and action results from this library of behavioural programming. For example, the ability to understand and speak a general purpose language such as English rests on behavioural programming. These habitual behaviours are to the individual's advantage in relieving his conscious of a vast amount of repetitive processing. Where the programming is wrong it is hard to correct and cannot be changed except through the evidences of experience. The truth is not a luxury but an important factor in judgments.

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The Problem Solving Path

Problems for solution follow a common path which is given by the form 

 

CONSCIOUS...> SUBCONSCIOUS...> PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESS...> INNER RESOURCE...> SUBCONSCIOUS...> CONSCIOUS

Diagram 2.2.1 illustrates the problem solving path in the intellect in which problems for solution are submitted to the problem solving process. The problem of experience, as defined by the problem solving method, is relegated to the subconscious. From there it is processed psychologically to achieve the creation of the solution which is then deposited in the subconscious. The individual becomes intuitively aware that he knows the solution without knowing precisely what that solution is. The solution may then be retrieved into the conscious for full understanding and consideration.

THE PROBLEM SOLVING PATH 

Diagram 2.2.1

 

There may be a delay, sometimes a long delay, between the conscious act of attempting a solution and the conscious recognition of the appearance of that solution. During that delay the individual is rarely conscious of what, if anything, is taking place with regard to the problem. In these circumstances of delayed insight it is usually the case that the solution process has been aborted. Each reiteration of the attempt to solve the problem, made in thinking about it, may be similarly aborted for the same reasons until, ultimately, the faults which are blocking the solution process are removed by further study of the problem, and the solution, perhaps unexpectedly, appears in the subconscious. The emergence of the solution into the intellect may be described as intellectual enlightenment. Enlightenment, in complex matters, is often an observable event of experience which has been described as a "flash of intuition".

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The Creation of Knowledge 

The psychological Processes


Chapter Two

THE DETERMINATION OF MEANING


The problem posed in this discussion is the definition of the psychological processes that are involved in the production of the solution from the solution specification, which is the form of requisition of new understanding. The problem or problems to be solved will have been recognised because a model of reality has been violated. These problems will have been investigated from the position of the understanding given by that model of reality. The model of reality is defined as true but the problem definitions are incompatible with it. This is the meaning of a problem. The problem definition and the solution specification, which pass through the conscious in verbal or digital form, will have been reduced to analogue form as a set of complex meanings and retained within the subconscious. Its structure within the subconscious is determined by the problem definition. As a model or series of models it will contain descriptions of the reality of the problem or problems, and definitions of the processes in which the problems have been identified. The solution that is required is the explanation or understanding of the problem as a whole, based on one comprehensive model. The solution will transform the model of reality currently in use, integrating the problem states of affairs into the reality represented and explained by the new model.

It is not always possible to integrate a problem into the model of reality. An example is given by the problem of the conscious intellect in the functioning of quantum systems. The conscious entity is unexplainable in quantum reality and must be defined as a non-quantum state of affairs. In such circumstances matter and the conscious entity must be separately modelled and linked together through a higher level understanding which predicts and explains both models. The psychological process can then follow the path from one model to the other by passing through the links provided by the higher level understanding. If a means of integrating the known reality and the problem reality cannot be found the problem cannot be solved. Models of reality, which are not integrated into higher level models, have unsecured or dangling links which function as a barrier to higher level processing. The exception is the model of ultimate reality which predicts, links, and explains everything.

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The Meaning of the Solution Specification

In the previous parts, the stages the intellect must go through in order to arrive at a new or modified understanding were explored. If a valid solution specification, or question, can be produced then the intellectual process can proceed to the acquisition of the new solution, answer, or understanding. There are psychological procedures by which the Inner Resource processes the solution specification to produce the solution.

The solution specification functions as a process control program, which determines the psychological processing of the problem definition. Different questions incorporated into the solution specification give rise to different forms of processing. Radically different realities may lie at the base of these questions. For example, a problem of social poverty may engender different questions depending on the concept of reality in use in the individual intellect. In one intellect the poor are victims of prior social injustices, and in another the poor are victims of their own unwillingness to seize opportunities. The resulting questions, even if they are similar in form, have very different meanings because the meanings attaching to the label "poor" are very different.

The psychological processes analyse the solution specification to determine what it means using the individual's concept of reality as the true definition of reality. The individual will apply different criteria to a book recognised as a work of fiction from one which claims the status of truth. Here the problem solver's general understanding of truth constitutes a higher level understanding of meaning than any incorporated into the problem definition. Criticism is possible because of this superior status of the intellectual understanding of truth.

A process control task definition is produced which reflects both the question and the philosophy that produced it. All subsequent processing of the problem definition is based on this task definition.

Diagram 2.2.2 illustrates the succeeding steps in the psychological processing of problems. This proceeds in three stages which are analysis, integration, and solution.

The first process is analytical and determines the meanings of all the terms of the problem definition using the inquiring intellect as the dictionary of meanings. The second process is integration in which the now fully defined problem is reduced to one complex meaning. The last stage is the creation of the required understanding and its transmission to the subconscious part of the intellect. All processes are essential to the achievement of the solution.

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES 

Diagram 2.2.2

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The Process of Analysis

The first stage of the process of the analysis of meaning is to determine just what each module of the problem definition means. The psychological process establishes the meaning of the problem definition by tracing each element of that statement back to its foundation in personal experience. To do this the intellect is used as the source of definitions. Each submeaning is relative to the intellect that formed it, and specifically relates to a particular model of reality. The definition may be seen as an assembly of meanings in the same way that a car is an assembly of parts. The car may be disassembled into the set of its component parts, which includes all the nuts, bolts, and washers as well as the major body components. In the same way the definition is analysed into its component meanings as derived from experience. The difference between the car and the solution requisition from the analytical point of view is that the car is one assembly whereas the solution requisition consists, in its pre-solution stage, of several unrelated sub-assemblies. Each sub-assembly must be analysed to a level where the meaning of each constituent term may be determined from experience.

An assembly of meanings is synonymous with an integrated set of understandings. Each understanding may have links upwards and downwards in the hierarchy. This upward link specifies the more general reality of which the understanding is a part. The downward links point to more detailed models of the reality of the understanding.

For example, the understanding of mathematics will contain an understanding of arithmetic which itself contains an understanding of addition. The model of addition contains models of cases, such as addition of positive numbers, negative numbers, mixed numbers, and so on. Since the system of understandings is integrated there are links between all understandings and their models which can be followed upwards and downwards by the psychological processes. The processing paths terminate in the upward direction when an unsecured or dangling link is found. They terminate in the downward direction when all pointers to lower level models have been followed.

Systems of understanding which claim the status of knowledge of reality as it is must terminate in understandings of experience. These understandings may be general or prototypical, such as those given by a general purpose language, or may be specific such as the understanding drawn from an experiment or other event of personal experience. Systems of understanding of reality as it was may terminate in understandings categorised as evidence which may or may not be sufficiently conclusive to justify a claim to knowledge.

The common form of definition is given by the words of a general purpose language which are tied through their understandings to external reality. This procedure involves two data sets, the one containing the repertoire of words and the other the set of meanings or understandings. The words act as pointers to their understandings. Informal or intuitive problem solving does not differ from formal or digital problem solving except that some basic meanings which are normally given by the understanding of language are replaced, in part, by unlabelled meanings of experiences.

Forms of definition such as the complex permanent understanding given by the word "Judaism" are also analysed even though such complex constructions were originally formed according to the rules of the psychological process. The reason is that further experience may have changed these definitions in some relevant way. Analysis of the entire problem definition and solution specification is repeated for every attempt at solution since changes may have occurred which have removed the problems blocking successful solution. These changes may also of course have the opposite effect of making the solution more difficult.

Analysis of meaning will also terminate with understandings of formal or objective knowledge, where the individual accepts the truth of the understandings and lacks the capability to call into conscious consideration the empirical bases of the theories. The psychological processes are therefore unable to determine the meaning of this knowledge in terms of experience. Problems to be solved cannot, in these circumstances, turn on the meanings of the formal theories. For this reason only trained and experienced individuals can further develop theory systems. In this case, the individual's understanding of the theory takes the form of one or more propositions which are taken by the psychological processes as commands which constrain, amend or extend the solution specification. Religious doctrine, which is accepted by the believer as true, constrains problem solving, and therefore thinking, in this manner. The same is true of assumptions. Assumptions such as that of materialism, which cannot offer a set of experiences to support them, function as overriding conditions for the achievement of the required solution.

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The Definition of Truth

In any system of understanding the superior and overarching model of reality is given by the topmost understanding in the hierarchy. When this highest level understanding is that of the ultimate reality this understanding fixes the meaning of truth to the absolute. The definition of the ultimate reality is that it accounts for, and models, the whole of reality, and therefore higher level explanations are not required. Working downwards from this ultimate understanding all linked and therefore compatible understandings are also absolutely true. Where the highest level understanding in a system is unsecured its absolute truth is unknown, and all lower level understandings have a truth status relative to the topmost model.

The understanding of truth in the intellect is always paramount. Conflicts of truth claims between the individual's subjective philosophy and the truth definition used in the requisition are possible. If the individual is prepared to consider the possibility of intellectual error the analytical process will proceed. If he is adamant that his understanding is correct then the problem definition is false, and the analytical process may abort if a truthful solution has been requisitioned.

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The Process of Integration

The Inner Resource then proceeds, as the third stage of the process, to integrate the fully defined problem definition, from the language or digital definitions upwards, to produce a set of complex analogue meanings. The problem definition and solution specification set is then fully defined in terms of the experience of reality of the problem solver. The integration of meaning as a stage of problem solution may be demonstrated in common experience. The process of reading a book may be used as an example of this process.

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The Integration of Reading

An examination of the process of reading a book will show the following steps. The individual reads a book written in a language he understands, sentence by sentence. Each word in a sentence is the name of a meaning in the language. In the process of integration the meaning of each word in a sentence is retrieved from the intellect and assembled. The assembly of simple meanings is then reduced to a single complex meaning which is the meaning of the sentence. The meaning of the sentence is held in memory while the next sentence is read. The meanings of all the sentences in a paragraph are reduced to a complex meaning, the name of which is the paragraph itself. The meanings of all paragraphs in a chapter, and all the chapters in the book are similarly reduced and integrated to arrive at the meaning of the book.

The process of integration is accumulative. The meaning of the second sentence is assimilated into the meaning of the first sentence as it is read and reduced to meaning. The meanings of the paragraphs are similarly assimilated as they are read. The incomplete but growing complex meaning, or model of understanding, operates as a rolling snowball, gathering new meanings and modifying itself as it goes. Individual meanings of words, sentences, paragraphs, and chapters, are not necessarily remembered in the process but are over-written by further assimilations.

The accumulative process always proceeds from what is already known to the grasp of the new ideas. In the structure of books, the movement is from the simple and understood, to the new and complex. Number systems are learned before quadratic equations, never after. This is a requirement of the intellect. By the time that the student arrives at the more complex problems his intellect will already contain the prerequisite simpler understandings.

There are two forms of integration which are additive and layered. In the additive form each new meaning is assimilated into the sum of previous meanings to form a new integrated complex meaning. In layering there is a discontinuity in the process. A complex meaning is no longer added to but forms a base meaning on which a new complex meaning is built. This also happens in formal learning. A student learns addition and subtraction which then constitutes a layer of understanding. This layer provides the base for learning multiplication and division. The understanding provided by the base is brought to bear in the achievement of understanding of later problems but is not assimilated. Layers constitute submodels.

The result of the reading and meaning integration process is a single complex meaning for the book as a whole. This meaning is an understanding based on a model of reality. The reality is given by the book. It will have submodels corresponding to the objects, animate and inanimate, described in the book and will record a set of processes corresponding to the actions that take place. The meaning or understanding of the model is the moral of the book.

It is sometimes the case that a reader fails to produce a single complex meaning from a book, but instead produces several complex sub-meanings or modules. A module is, therefore, a partial understanding. To fully understand the book it is then necessary to work backwards and forwards among the modules abstracting and correlating to achieve the comprehensive understanding that the single integrated complex meaning would have given. In general, understandings of complex matters display all three forms of organisation, integrated, layered, and modular, within the intellect.

In the reading process integration of meaning is aided by the redundancy of meaning which exists in most writings. Sentences which fail to proceed to a single meaning, using the reader's intellect as the data definition system, do not necessarily cause a premature and unsuccessful termination of the integration process, if the missing meaning can be found in later material or can be replaced by informed substitution. Readers of hastily produced novels may become aware of inconsistencies. The writer may have called a character by a certain name earlier in the story and now refers to that character by a different name. The reader knows this immediately by an inability, albeit temporary, to integrate the new name into the model of the reality that is the story so far.

Integration of meaning of books may be prevented by lack of the prerequisite understanding or by defects in the book itself. Individuals will fail to grasp the meaning of scientific arguments based on mathematics if their mathematical training is inadequate. Individuals may be aware of missing pages in books by the difficulty found in trying to integrate later material without having the complete understanding provided by what has gone earlier, including the missing material. A reader may or may not be able to guess what is contained in the missing pages from what follows in later chapters. If informed substitution is not possible the book cannot be fully understood.

A problem definition or solution specification with missing material similarly fails the integration process. For example, shortcutting the problem investigation may produce a partial or vague problem definition which means that the problem is not fully understood. Redundancy is not a characteristic of formal definitions and inadequate or missing meanings cause process failures.

The part played by constituent meanings in the formation of understandings may be shown by the example given by a simple set of instructions. This may read as follows:- 

"IN THE EVENT OF AN EMERGENCY, EXECUTE PROCEDURE A TO OBTAIN MANUAL CONTROL. NEXT PRESS THE KEY TO DISPLAY OPTIONS. MAKE THE APPROPRIATE SELECTION AND PRESS THE EXECUTE KEY". 

The logic of the emergency procedure is clear enough, but the meaning attaching to the label "procedure A" is not known. The emergency procedure is not therefore understood and cannot be expressed behaviourally. The missing meaning completely invalidates the procedure.

In a similar way a definition of a problem or a specification of a required solution, which has undefined terms, is not understandable, and is therefore defective and unprocessable. Further definition is required to enable the processes of analysis and synthesis to discover and assemble the full set of constituent meanings.

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The Creation of the Solution

The creation of the solution takes place when the Inner Resource has fully defined the solution requisition in analogue form. The solution process does not verify any statements against reality and truth, except where the individual demands an absolutely true solution and can supply the meaning of absolute truth. In the absence of an understanding of absolute truth the process uses whatever passes for the understanding of truth within the intellect and the problem definition. Where this understanding is based on correctly executed problem investigations the solution will be true relative to that problem understanding, but may be absolutely true or false. If the understanding of truth is based on neither absolute truth nor a correct problem understanding the truth status of the solution is indeterminable and is not to be relied upon.

To requisition the absolute truth means that the upward links as given in the model or understanding of the problem, are followed to enable the psychological process to relate the solution requisition to fundamental reality. The problem is then viewed by the psychological processes from the understanding of fundamental reality and absolute truth. The model of reality, which is the basis of the problem understanding, consists of descriptions of entities and actions, and the meaning that attaches to these. Where these descriptions refer to elements of fundamental reality, or derivations from this reality, they point back to the experiences that gave rise to these understandings. Since these understandings are given initially by the Inner Resource, the rules of correspondence in effect warrant the Inner Resource as the justification for the understanding of truth. The net result is that the intellect and the Inner Resource have a common ground in the meaning of truth which serves as the basis for the interactions between the two entities. If there is a solution to the problem it will be absolutely true.

The solution, as a complex meaning in primitive or analogue form, is returned to the subconscious, from where the conscious becomes aware intuitively of the occurrence and existence of the new understanding. For the conscious to examine the solution it needs to be expressed serially in digital or verbal form. If the problem solving process has been well executed the tools to enable the distinctions to be expressed will exist in the subconscious. It is never the case that solutions in analogue form are expressed verbally and completely as found. Expressions are purposeful and draw upon the solution or understanding to the extent of the requirements of the problem. Solving a range of problems often gives a better grasp of the new solution.

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The Results of the Psychological Processes

The psychological processes may result in a solution and that solution may be true or false. The conditions for successful solution and the reasons for failures to arrive at solutions and for false solutions are examined below.

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The Creation of Knowledge 

The psychological Processes


Chapter Three

THE RULES GOVERNING THE CREATION OF KNOWLEDGE


The Conditions Necessary for True Solutions

True solutions follow when the problem solving method has been operated correctly. The problem must be recognised from a viewpoint given by true reality and must be unexplainable by the existing understanding of reality. The solution specification must be the product of a rational purpose, which must be concerned with the truth, and the problem to be solved must be fully and correctly understood. The conformity to rational method offers an assurance that the problem solving procedure has been carried out satisfactorily.

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The Reasons for Failures to arrive at Solutions

Not all attempts to arrive at answers to problems result in success. Why failures occur is of some importance to the understanding of the problem solving process and the problem is worth the effort of study. Since failure constitutes a real problem it is amenable to the problem solving method.

The problem may be solved using the formula 

PROBLEM = FAILURES...> PROBLEM UNDERSTANDING...> SOLUTION SPECIFICATION...> [Inner Resource]...> SOLUTION.

The problem of failure is defined, and is submitted with a question, in the form of the solution specification, to the psychological process. The question is generally "why?".

The answer emerges in the form of a rule that "if one can understand the solution, one will get the solution". In order to understand the solution the individual must first understand the problem. Failures to proceed to a solution are to be attributed to the prior failure to understand the problem fully and correctly. The test is the process of analysis and integration of meaning. The failure of the solution specification to analyse or integrate, when subject to the psychological processes, indicates the lack of problem understanding. The corollary of this dictum is that where the question is not understood the answer cannot be understood. This provides the rationale behind the system of problem solving, as an unlimited flow of new understanding could not be integrated into the individual intellect. Intellectual progress must always proceed through problem solving. This may be verified through the study of teaching practice.

A solution specification which draws meanings from more than one metaphysical compartment within a fragmented intellect, cannot be integrated by that intellect. In effect the problem is defined by two incompatible models of reality. To see this one can try to imagine the result of reading only the first half of one novel and the last half of a second novel and trying to integrate the two halves as one complex meaning. A fully integrated intellect can, in principle, allow the integration of all solution specifications since all understandings are linked into a hierarchy, and a processing path exists between any two understandings wherever they may be in the structure.

Fictional realities, understood as such, are not a problem and may be intermixed with models of reality. The analytical process follows the guidance of the individual understanding of truth and will not attempt to further define fictional statements in terms of experience.

Failures to understand the problem can result from a number of causes. Some of these are:- 

1. An inadequate investigation of the problem, which is a fairly obvious one. 

2. An attempt to import into the problem definition or solution specification ideas which are incompatible with a solution. An attempt to preserve the mechanical understanding of Newtonian science, while at the same time incorporating the theory of electro-magnetic fields would be an example. In effect two different problem definitions are being mixed prior to the attempt at solution.

3. An inadequate understanding of the meaning of terms employed in the problem definition and the solution specification.

The prerequisite for reaching a solution is that the problem must be understood in every important detail. The meaning assigned to each word in the solution process is that normally used within the intellect, except where the individual is aware of special definitions. This imposes an important limitation on what can be known. For example, to use the word "truth" in a key context in the solution specification and yet have no understanding of its meaning, will cause a problem in the solution process. If no meaning can be assigned to the term the process of analysis will stop. It would be wrong to assume that the Source of new understandings will supply the deficiency, or will continue the solution process regardless.

It is no surprise to discover that terms, and especially key terms, must be defined since the meaning of the solution specification and therefore the solution turns on them. Two individuals, both attempting to proceed to solution using the same solution specification, may well arrive at slightly different solutions because they define some terms slightly differently.

Of these causes of failure problem solvers may, with care, correct the first, and an awareness of the second may help to avoid failure. The third may be worrying, if only because human understanding of almost everything is always incomplete. However, since new understandings are always accommodations to existing states of intellects, complete and perfect intellects are unnecessary to the solution process. Providing incomplete solutions are acceptable an incomplete problem understanding is not a cause of failure to solve real problems.

God may be defined as the Father, or as the First Cause, and a solution in either of those terms will result. An attempt to define the term "God" more comprehensively will result in a better solution, but since God is in practice undefinable, all solutions using this method will fall short. The limitations of both the intellect and the problem solving method imply that the full solution must be developed from the initially incomplete nucleus of understanding. Progression in knowledge is the normal case.

The distinction should be borne in mind here between incomplete understandings of problems and inadequate understandings, misunderstandings and non-understandings of problems. A problem, in the scientific way of working, is often broken down into more basic problems. An understanding of a basic problem may serve as the foundation for an attempt at a solution. The result is, in terms of the original and greater problem, incomplete and must be progressively augmented. A mismanaged problem investigation results in an inadequate or mistaken problem understanding. 

If the problem is further investigated in order to discover why the Source baulks at definition difficulties it is discovered that solution specifications containing undefined terms cannot be reduced to a single complex meaning because logical discontinuities exist. This integration process may be compared to the compilation process in computer language technology and gives rise to the same error types, such as undefined, inadequately defined, or ambiguously defined terms. In the computer system the source program is reduced by another program called a compiler, to a machine-understandable language application program. An application program with any of these faults which, in processing, attempted to manipulate non-existent data items, or execute undefined procedures, would either produce erroneous output or terminate unexpectedly. The psychological processes disallow those possibilities by trapping the causes within the specification analysis process.

The integration process differs from the compilation process in that compilation generates the same or a larger number of executable statements from the source program whereas the integration process generates one complex meaning. The meaning is formulated in the primitive language which is common to the subconscious and to the Source. This primitive language is independent of whatever general purpose language has been used to analyse the problem.

Confidence and belief are factors in the creation of meanings. Lack of confidence and an inability to believe in one's own capabilities cause failure to learn in schoolchildren. These children are unable to solve the problems involved in learning and fail to produce understandings of the matter being studied. Students, and other problem solvers, who are confident of their own intellectual powers will always do better than timid and overcautious individuals. The reason is quite simply that when the solution process comes across a belief or understanding in the intellect declaring, for example, that the solution is impossible to achieve, it accepts this as the truth and terminates the process. The solution process assumes the honesty of the individual, and where he is less than truthful he disadvantages himself.

A similar case of failure arises where there is a contradiction within the intellect. The purpose being pursued, for example, is the achievement of an understanding of God. However, the individual does not believe that God exists. The integration process finds that contradiction and terminates the solution process on the grounds of illogicality. If God is nothing then nothing can be postulated about it. This poses a great difficulty for hostile investigation. St.Augustine said this 1600 years ago when he asserted that understanding follows belief. An open mind is a prerequisite for the investigation of complex problems, including that of the understanding of God.

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The Reasons for False Solutions

The reasons for false solutions are related to false views of reality and poor execution of the problem solving process. The problem to be solved must be viewed from a model of true reality. False views of reality, like false theories, provide no avenue to the truth. To postulate that reality is material in its essence, for example, will lead to a true solution if the assumption is true and to a false solution otherwise. In general, the adoption of assumptions leads to the motivation to prove the assumptions correct and this motivation replaces the concern to reach the truth. Assumptions in the form of ideologies appear to be theories but there is no empirical basis for them and they are rarely stated in a form that leaves them vulnerable to scientific criticism. There is therefore no way they can be disqualified. Their effect on the solution creation process disadvantages the problem solver.

Mistaken or dishonest thinking leads to false understandings. The morality of the Source requires that the honesty of the thinker is never questioned and this may produce false understanding. The process of the creation of new understandings does not test for the truth of the solution specification by reason of this morality. Every solution specification is processed as if it were true and honest. Typically, the individual may react unfavourably to a statement and then form the aim to prove it false. The problem-solving process will supply arguments in the form of understandings based on the assumption that the requisitioning solution specification is true. If it is not, the individual falls into error, or deeper error. It is always open to the individual to requisition the truth but the term must have valid meaning within his intellect if it is to achieve its aim.

The grasp of the understanding of absolute truth is a prerequisite to truthful problem solving, which is synonymous with truthful thinking. For this reason absolutely true knowledge can only be produced by truthful, or rational, intellects, which is what Descartes was saying.

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